Tupolev Experimental Design Bureau has developed more than 300 aircrafts for 95 years of work. About 50 of them went into mass production. Strategic bombers Tu-160 and TU-95, the legend of civil aviation – Tu-144, the massive Soviet passenger jet Tu-154 and its modern replacement Tu-204/214 became the most popular.
1. In the town of Zhukovsky there is a flight-test and a base PSC “Tupolev”. There is an airfield “Ramenskoye” with Europe’s largest runway 5500 meters long. Every two years the International Aviation and Space salon MAKS hosts in Zhukovsky.
2. The supersonic strategic bomber-rocket carrier Tu-160 was developed in the Tupolev Design Bureau in the late 1970s. According to NATO classification it is known as Blackjack. Domestic pilots call it the “White Swan”.
3. Tu-160 is the heaviest (maximum takeoff weight 275 tons) and the fastest (up to 2230 km/h) serial bomber in the world.
4. Rocket carrier with variable geometry of the wing was designed as a Soviet response to the American Intercontinental bomber B1.
5. The first flight of the prototype Tu-160 took place at the airfield “Ramenskoye” on December 18, 1981.
6. Tu-160 is lifted in the air by four engines NK-32, located in pairs on both sides of the fuselage. Power unit of Tu-160 (total thrust thousands of 100 kg/s) is the most powerful among all existing aircrafts in the world in this class.
7. Competitors of Tupolev Aircrafts in creating a new strategic bomber were the Sukhoi Design Bureau and Myasishchev Design Bureau. However, the project was eventually entrusted to Tupolev DB: it already had had vast experience used during the creation of the supersonic airliner Tupolev Tu-144.
8. The most of Tu-160’s now have their own names. Presented at the photo one of the first mass-produced boards is named after the test pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Veremeev. It was he who raised to the sky the very first Tu-160 in December 1981.
9. Today, the Russian Air Force has a dozen of Tu-160.
10. The Russian Ministry of Defense expects to order around fifty modernized bombers from a domestic aviation industry.
11. The maximum weight of the combat cargo – 45 tonnes, which exceeds the load of all the aircraft in its class in the world.
12. In June 2010, two strategic bombers Tu-160 set a distance record – 18 000 km, in flight they spent 23 hours with refueling in the air.
13. Aircraft are made at the Gorbunov Kazan Aircraft Plant.
14. In 2016, one began to restore the key technological lines to resume production of modernized Tu-160.
15. The cockpit. For the first time in the history there has been used not a steering wheel for both hands to control the heavy jet aircraft. The crew — 4 people in two double cabins (commanding officer, assistant, navigator, navigator-operator). For the comfort of the crew in long-distance flights there are beds, a toilet and a reheating system.
16. The first combat use of the Tu-160 was held during Russian operations to Syria in November 2015. Bombers attacked terrorist positions with cruise missiles.
18. The symbol of the strategic long-range aviation of the Soviet Union during the Cold War. According to NATO classification – “The Bear.” (rus. “Medved”)
19. t iIs equipped with four engines NK-12. It is the most powerful turboprop (15 thousand HP) engine in the world.
20. The characteristic feature of the appearance of the Tu-95 is a non-retractable receiver to refuel in the air.
21. Tu-95 served as an effective tool for deterring a potential enemy. Range of flight of the first TU-95 modification was more than 15 000 km.
22. The prototype of the Tu-95 made its first flight on November 12, 1952. Series production began in 1955 and continued in Samara till 1992. The Russian Air Force has more than 50 Tu-95 bombers.
23. The crew of the Tu-95 – 9 people (reduced to 7 people in the modification of the Tu-95MS).
24. Screw diameter is more than 5 metres. The mass of each of the eight blades – 96 kg.
25. Initially, the Tu-95 was equipped with six guns, in a modern modification only two of them were left because there are rare cases of close combat with infantry weapons in modern air war.
26. The length of the Tu-95 and the wing-spread are almost the same – about 50 meters.
27. The maximum combat load is 15 tonnes.
28. The crew of the aircraft enters the cabin through a hatch in the niche of the nose gear. Nose wheel of Tu-95 does not have the brake system. Wheel diameter is 1.1 meter.
29. Military experts believe that the TU-95 is far from obsolete. The plane has been successfully applied in military conflicts (particularly in Syria). Bomber attacks targets with its modern cruise missiles for a few thousand kilometers away – out of the kill zone of enemy air defenses.
Pride and pain of Tupolev DB and domestic aviation industry is Tu-144. The fastest passenger jet in the world.
32. In the 60-ies of XX century aircraft designers faced the problem of creating long-range supersonic airliner. The work was in the Soviet Union (Tupolev DB) and in Europe (Franco-British project “Concord”). The USSR won. The first flight of the Tu-144 took place December 31, 1968, two months before “Concord”.
33. For the first time in the history of passenger aviation, Tu-144 broke the sound barrier in June 1969 at an altitude of 11 km. At twice the speed of sound this airliner exceeded in May 1970.
34. At the Kuibyshev motor plant, turbojets NK-144 were designed specifically for the Tu-144. Four such installations on every cruise allowed it to put on full speed over 2400 km/h.
Tu-144 is faster than “Concord” more than 150 km/h. But because of the speed there was a significant fuel consumption (on board one had to take up to 100 tons). Its constructors worked on the engine efficiency in subsequent modifications. In 1980 development of the engine NK-144 was discontinued due to the collapse of the project.
35. In the design of the Tu-144, the creators used many technical innovations. To improve review at take-off and landing the nose had been leaning, and in cruise flight was in one plane with the fuselage.
36. The extra “Wings” have improved controllability of the almost 200-tonne liner at take-off and landing. Front stabilizer along with leaning nose allowed to decelerate the aircraft before landing.
37. At the time of the creation, the cockpit was equipped with the most modern avionics. The crew of the liner is 4 people (excluding flight attendants).
38. The pilot wheel of the fastest passenger aircraft in the history of mankind.
39. The panel of the flight engineer – set of tools for managing and controlling power and fuel systems.
40. Some elements of the instrument panel of the Tu-144 especially emphasized its status of a long-haul intercontinental liner. Time Switches “Moscow Greenwich” and the system of measures “English-Metric”. Unfortunately, the plane didn’t enter the international airlines. It flied abroad only for demonstration flights to the French Le Bourget. The first of which ended in tragedy. By never clarified reasons Tu-144 crashed June 3, 1973, killing 6 crew and 8 people. Several catastrophes and accidents, as well as high operating costs led to the closure of the project in 1980-ies.
41. Tu-144 designers provided innovative ability to start Jet engines in the air. An important feature, because cruise aircraft was managed by change in engine thrust.
42. In total from 1968 to 1984, only 16 units of the Tu-144 were built. Several boards are used as museum exhibits, and other stores in different cities of Russia. Photo: Tu-144 at a training aerodrome of Samara national research university.
43. The Board # 77107 is installed for training purposes in the territory of the Kazan Aviation Institute.
44. Modern technology has changed the system of training personnel for the aircraft. Photo: Flight Simulator of the medium-range airliner Tu-204SM.
45. A full-featured simulator of a “glass” cockpit. The projection of images overboard and change the position of the exerciser in three dimensions allow you to realistically simulate different conditions and flight modes, including extreme.
46. The remote control of the simulator is with the configuration of input conditions.
47. Simulation of discrepancy with a aircraft-violator.
48. Passenger and cargo modifications of aircraft Tu-204 were collected in Ulyanovsk.
The plant “Aviastar” is a part of the United Aircraft Corporation.
49. The family of Tu-204 was designed by Tupolev Design Bureau in the late 80 ‘s early 90-ies of the XX century. On the basis of the Tu-204 there were created about two dozen of different modifications.
50. Aircrafts Tu-204 were intended to replace the massive liner Tu-154. But Russian companies chosen the aircrafts of foreign production. For over half a century of operation (which continues today) Tu-154 became a legend. Photo: the famous “Poltinnik” at the entrance to the Novosibirsk Tolmachevo airport.