Miles of underground passages, particle accelerators, lasers, plasma generators and other wonders of science are in this report.
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics is the largest academic institution of the country, one of the world’s leading centres in the field of high-energy physics and accelerators, plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion. The Institute carries out a large-scale experiments in elementary particle physics, modern accelerators, intense sources of synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. For most of its areas, it is the only institute in Russia.
*Institute of Nuclear Physics*
The first device that meet visitors right in the hallway of the Institute, is this resonator and a bending magnet with VEPP-2М. Today they are museum exhibits.
This is a resonator. In fact, this is a particle accelerator.
Installation with colliding electron-positron beams VEPP-2М began working in 1974. Until 1990, it was modernized several times, injection part has been improved and new detectors for experiments in high-energy physics have been installed.
The bending magnet deflecting a beam of elementary particles to pass around the ring.
VEPP-2М is one of the first colliders in the world. The author of the ground-breaking idea to collide opposing beams of elementary particles was the first director of the Institute of Nuclear Physics – Gersh Budker. This idea became a revolution in high-energy physics experiments and allowed to go to a new level. Now, this principle is used worldwide, including the Large Hadron Collider.
Accelerator complex VEPP 2000.
Collider VEhPP-2000 is a modern installation with colliding electron-positron beams, built in BINP at the beginning of the 2000s. The new drive has a wider range of energies between 160 and 1000 MeV in the beam, and an order of magnitude higher luminosity, which means the number of events per unit time.
The high luminosity is achieved by using the original concept of round colliding beams, first proposed in BINP and applied on VEPP 2000. Detectors KMD-3 and LICs are located in venues of beams. They register a variety of processes occurring in the annihilation of the electron with its anti-particle-pozitron, such as the birth of the light mesons and nucleon-antinucleon pairs.
Creating VEPP-2000 using a range of advanced solutions in the magnetic system and beam diagnostic system in 2012, it was marked by the prestigious in Physics Accelerators Wechsler Prize.
Console VEhPP 2000. Management of installation is carried out from here.
In addition to the computer equipment, such instrument cabinets are used for monitoring and control of the installation.
Everything is clear on the light bulbs.
Having passed more than half a mile along the corridors of the Institute, we got to the station of synchrotron radiation.
*Do not go, there is an experiment!*
Synchrotron radiation (SR) occurs when high-energy electrons movу in a magnetic field in accelerators.
Radiation has a number of unique properties and can be used for material research and technological purposes.
In addition to scientific research, SR is used for application tasks. For example, the development of new electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles or new explosives.
In Russia there are two centers on the use of SI – Kurchatov source SR (KISR) and the Siberian center of synchrotron and terahertz radiation (SCSTR) BINP.
This yellow chamber is a station “Explosion”. It explores the detonation of explosives.
The Center has a developed instrument base for sample preparation and related research. The center employs about 50 research groups from the Institutes of the Siberian Scientific Center and Siberian universities.
Now we go to a room with an iron door and an inscription “Do not enter! Radiation!”
There is a prototype accelerator source of epithermal neutrons suitable for the widespread introduction of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in clinical practice. Simply put, this device is for the fight against cancer.
Boron solution is injected into human blood. Then the tumor is irradiated with epithermal neutron flux, boron nuclei absorb neutrons, nuclear reactions occur with large energy generation, bringing the sick cells die.
BNCT technique was tested on nuclear reactors, which were used as a source of neutrons, but implementation of BNCT clinical practice on them was difficult. For this purpose, particle accelerators are more suitable because they are compact, safe and provide the best quality of neutron beam.
There are some more pictures from this laboratory below.
*Caution! Radiation! Do not come near!*
The main feature of BINP is the presence of large experimental production (about 1,000 people) with a high level of technical and technological equipment.
A complex and unique scientific equipment is developed and produced here.
Separately it is necessary to mention the underground passages of the Institute. I don’t know exactly how much their total length, but I think a couple of Metro stations here would easily fit. For a stranger it is very easy to get lost, but the staff can get from them in almost any place in that vast Institution.
The installation “Corrugated trap”. It belongs to a class of open traps to keep fusion plasma in an external magnetic field. Plasma heating at the installation is carried out by means of the injection of relativistic electron beam in a previously created deuterium plasma.
This installation consists of three parts: the accelerator U-2, the main solenoid and the output node. U-2 extends electrons from the explosive-emission cathode and accelerates them in the belt diode up to about 1 MeV. A created powerful relativistic beam is compressed and injected into the main solenoid where a large level of microturbulence arises in a deuterium plasma and the beam loses up to 40% of its energy, sending it to the electrons of the plasma.
In the lower part of the installation there is the main solenoid and the output node.
In the upper part there is an electron beam generator U-2.
There are conducted experiments on the physics of plasma confinement in an open magnetic systems, the physics of collective interaction of electron beams with plasma, the interaction of high-power plasma flows of materials, as well as the working out of plasma technologies for scientific research.
The idea of multi mirror cells plasma confinement was proposed in 1971 by G. Budker, V.Mirnov and D. Ryutov. Multi mirror cells trap is a set of connected mirror cells forming a corrugated magnetic field.
In this system, the charged particles are divided into two groups: captured in the single mirror cells and trapped in the loss cone of a single mirror cell.
Installation is large and, of course, only scientists working here know all its sides and details.
Laser system GOS-1001.
Mirror, as part of the installation, has a reflection coefficient that is close to 100%. Otherwise, it will heat up and burst.
Perhaps, the most impressive installation is the gas-dynamic trap (GDT). It recalled us a spaceship in the assembly shop.
Installing the GDT, created at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1986, belongs to a class of open traps and serves to confine the plasma in a magnetic field. It hosts experimentation on controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF).
An important problem of CTF on the basis of open traps is the thermal insulation of the plasma from the end wall. The fact of the matter is that in open traps, unlike closed systems type tokamak or stellarator, plasma derives from the trap and gets on plasma receiver. At the same time these cold electrons emitted by the plasma stream may penetrate back into the trap from the surface of the plasma receiver, strongly cooling the plasma.
As part of a pilot program, scientists constantly work to improve plasma stability, suppression and reduction of longitudinal plasma loss and energy from the trap, the study of the behavior of the plasma in various operating conditions, raising target plasma temperature and density of fast particles. Installing of the GDT is equipped with the most advanced plasma diagnostics. Most of them are designed in INP and even supplied under contracts for other plasma laboratories, including foreign ones.
Lasers in BINP are everywhere.