There are about fifteen heating plants in Moscow. Their pipes can be of two types: smoking ones – high and “slender” and water-cooling towers – short and thick. The second ones are absolutely harmless for the environment, they are in fact like ordinary humidifiers but as high as a twelve-storey house.
Right now we are going to visit the Kazakhstan regional heating plant-3 in Karaganda and inspect the construction from all sides.
This is how water-cooling towers look like in Moscow from the height.
Water is cooled due to its partial evaporation when it drops down from the special sprinkler along which an air stream is supplied in the direction opposed to the water flow. In other words, water flows down while the powerful current of the air raises up evaporating and cooling the water.
When 1% of the water evaporates, the temperature of the remaining mass drops for 6 C.
The irrigation area of the water cooling tower is 3200 m.
Most cooling towers divide into two types – chimney and fan ones.
From the technical point of view fan cooling towers are more efficient because they provide deeper water cooling withstanding high specific heat loads, however they require electric energy for the fan drive operation).
In chimney-type cooling towers draft is created by means of high stack without electricity.
Fan cooling towers occupy less space and do not spoil landscape with their industrial appearance.
The view inside the hyperboloidal cooling tower at the height of ten meters. The sprinkling system disperses hot water.
78 m over the ground.
“Crater” of the cooling tower.
Heating plant panorama.
The plant started its operation in 1977.
Today the plant has seven boilers and six turbines, but they plan to expand it.
The heating station operates on carbon. Annually it consumes 2 000 000 tons of coal.
The heating station produces 83% of all the heating and 98% of all the electric energy in Karaganda. Available capacity: electric – 395 MW, heating – 736 Gcal/h.
In the control room.
Location: Karaganda, Kazakhstan