20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Twenty years ago, on December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union, declaring the office extinct and dissolving the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, a massive communist empire that had existed since 1922. The USSR had been in a long economic stagnation when Gorbachev came to power in 1985. In order to bring about change, he introduced several reforms, including perestroika and glasnost (openness). Glasnost opened the floodgates of protest and many republics made moves toward independence, threatening the continued existence of the USSR. In August of 1991, a group of Communist Party hardliners frustrated by the separatist movement attempted to stage a coup. They quickly failed due to a massive show of civil resistance — but the already-faltering government was destabilized even further by the attempt. By December of 1991, 16 Soviet republics had declared their independence, and Gorbachev handed over power to Russian president Boris Yeltsin, ending the USSR. Collected here are photos from those tumultuous months 20 years ago.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A woman reaches into her bag, which rests on a fallen Soviet hammer-and-sickle on a Moscow street in 1991. December 25, 2011 will mark the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Soviet Union.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Lithuanians carry Lithuanian flags in the center of Vilnius on January 10, 1990, during demonstration asking for the country’s independence. In early 1990, Sajudis-Reform Movement of Lithuania backed candidates won the elections to the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet. On March 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet proclaimed the re-establishment of Lithuanian independence. The Baltic republics were in forefront of the struggle for independence and Lithuania was the first of the Soviet republics to declare independence.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, center, in animated conversation with residents of Vilnius, Lithuania, on Thursday, January 11, 1990. Gorbachev was in the Lithuanian capital to press for reversal of the local communist party’s decision to split from Moscow and to slow the republic’s drive for complete independence.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A crowd blocks the passage of Soviet tanks on a road near Ganja, formerly Kirovabad, in Soviet Azerbaijan, on January 22, 1990. Troops sent into the area last week to quell ethnic violence met both armed and peaceful resistance.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

People buy teacups in the Vilnius downtown shop on Friday, April 27, 1990. Despite an economic blockade of Lithuania by Soviet forces, shops in Vilnius are well supplied with food and other goods as Lithuania entered the 10th day of a blockade.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Residents face a cordon of Soviet Interior Ministry troops in front of the local Communist Party Headquarters in the Tajikistan capital of Dushanbe, on February 15, 1990. Soviet authorities declared a state of emergency in the city, following ethnic rioting.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Two Soviet paratroopers inspect weapons confiscated from a local militia organization in Kaunas, Lithuania on Sunday, March 26, 1990. Soviet President Gorbachev ordered all Lithuanians to surrender their firearms to Soviet authorities.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Soviet mothers who lost their sons in the Red Army are held back by State militia as they hold photographs of their loved ones in Red Square, on Monday, December 24, 1990. A group of about 200 Soviet parents who have all lost sons through ethnic violence and accidents within the Soviet armed services demonstrated outside the Kremlin. 6,000 Soviet service men were killed during 1990.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

About 100,000 demonstrators march on the Kremlin in Moscow on January 20, 1991. Many called for the resignation of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev protesting against the Soviet army crackdown against the nationalist Lithuanian authorities. Lithuania had been the first Baltic Republic to proclaim its independence in March 1990.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Soviet soldiers patrol an emptied Red Square in Moscow, on March 27, 1991, after the area had been blocked off in anticipation of a pro-Yeltsin rally.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Anti-Soviet political graffiti filled an entire wall in Vilnius on January 17, 1991. The wall surrounding the Lithuanian parliament was erected to defend against a possible raid by Soviet troops. Many Soviet army deserters pinned their draft cards to a defaced poster of President Mikhail Gorbachev.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

In this photo taken on January 13, 1991, a Lithuanian demonstrator runs in front of a Soviet Red Army tank during an assault on the Lithuanian Radio and Television station in Vilnius. Soviet troops opened fire on unarmed civilians in Vilnius, killing 13 people and injuring 100 others.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

An armed Lithuanian volunteer guard wakes up as his fellow compatriot slept in Vilnius, Lithuania, on January 23, 1991. Hundreds of gunmen held vigil in the heavily fortified Lithuanian parliament while Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev urged all Baltic republics to prevent further violence.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Pall-bearers carry a flag-draped casket during a funeral procession through Vilnius, on January 16, 1991, for 10 of the 13 people killed when Soviet troops stormed the Lithuanian broadcast center the previous weekend. Hundreds of thousands of Lithuanians jammed the procession route to mourn their national heroes.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Hundreds of thousands of protesters pack Moscow’s Manezh Square next to the Kremlin, on March 10, 1991, demanding that Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and his fellow Communists give up power. The crowd, estimated at 500,000, was the biggest anti-government demonstration in the 73 years of since the Communists took power, and came a week before the nationwide referendum on Gorbachev’s union treaty.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A few weeks before the Coup, Mikhail Gorbachev stands surrounded by his so-called friends, all of them soon to be leaders of the August Coup against him. Vice President Gennady Yanayev, second from right, became the most visible of the Coup leaders. Here, they are lighting the flame at the tomb of the unknown soldier outside the Kremlin wall in May of 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Soviet Army tanks parked near Spassky Gate, an entrance to the Kremlin and Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow’s Red Square after a coup toppled Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev on August 19, 1991. Tanks rolled through Moscow towards the Russian White House, where Boris Yeltsin, leader of the Soviet-era Russian republic at the time, gathered his supporters after denouncing the coup.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

The leaders of the August Coup: from left, Soviet Interior Minister Boris Pugo, Soviet Vice President Gennady Yanayev, and Oleg Baklanov, the first Vice-President of the Soviet Defence Council. These men were members of the self-styled “committee for the state of emergency” which headed the coup against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. Here, they gave a press conference on August 19, 1991 in Moscow.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A crowd gathers around a personnel carrier as some people climb aboard the vehicle and try to block its advance near Red Square in downtown Moscow, on August 19, 1991. Military vehicles were on the streets of Moscow following the announcement that Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev was replaced by Gennady I. Yanayev in a coup attempt by hard-line Communists.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Supporters of Russian president Yeltsin roll a large metal pipe to use as a barricade near the Russian federation building in Moscow, on August 19, 1991, following a military coup attempt by Soviet hardliners.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Russian President Boris Yeltsin (left) stands on top of an armored vehicle parked in front of the Russian Federation building as supporters hold a Russian federation flag on August 19, 1991, during a coup attempt. Yeltsin addressed a crowd of supporters calling for a general strike.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A picture shows Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev speaking in a video message taped on August 19, 1991, the second day of his captivity. Gorbachev said there had been an unconstitutional coup and that he was completely well.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A defiant Russian President Boris Yeltsin raises a fist to his supporters from the Russian Federation building in Moscow on August 19, 1991, calling on them to hold a general strike and to resist the pro-communist coup against Soviet President Gorbachev.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Over 50,000 people ignore a declared state of emergency and gather in front of the Russian parliament building in order to support Boris Yeltsin, on August 20, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A pro-democracy demonstrator argues with a Soviet soldier late on August 20, 1991, as a tank blocked access to the center of Moscow.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Residents play music and talk to soldiers in front of the Russian White House in central Moscow early on August 20, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

People stand on a barricade in front the Russian White House in Moscow on August 21, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Part of a large crowd, outside the Russian Parliament building in Moscow, celebrates the news that the hardline Communist coup has failed, on August 22, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Celebrations in Moscow after the failure of the coup attempt, and remembrances of those killed in the violence, in August of 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A crowd watches the statue of KGB founder Dzerzhinsky being toppled in Lubyanskaya Square in Moscow, on August 22, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

President Mikhail Gorbachev, in the Soviet Parliament right after his return from being under house arrest during the August, 1991 coup.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

People follow a funeral procession for the victims of the coup in front of Russian White House in Moscow on August 24, 1991, after the coup attempt failed.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A group of Boris Yeltsin supporters rip apart one of the barricades surrounding the Russian federation building in Moscow, on August 25, 1991, following a coup attempt a few days before that eventually failed.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A Baku resident uses an axe to hack apart a placard showing a portrait of Russian Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, on September 21, 1991. Azerbaijan was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic by Soviet Union in 1920. The Azeri National Council voted for its declaration of independence in 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A member of the KGB (right) who requested anonymity hands over his weapon to a Lithuanian official before leaving the KGB headquarters in Vilnius after Lithuanian government decided to drop the Soviet secret service organization, on August 31, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Soviet rock fans attend a concert in Moscow on September 28, 1991. Half a million people jammed an airfield to see the Monsters of Rock concert featuring AC/DC, Pantera and Metallica at the Soviet Union’s biggest Western rock concert, touted as a gift to Russian youth for their resistance to last month’s coup.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A young Lithuanian girl sits on the toppled statue of Russian Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin in Vilnius after the monument was removed from the center of the Lithuanian capital, on September 1, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

A jubilant Chechen secessionist with clenched fists opens his arms to the crowd during a rally in Grozny, on November 14, 1991, to celebrate the pullout of Soviet troops from the Muslim enclave in Southern Russia.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

Citizens of the Ukraine vote on a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union at the Ukraine Embassy in Moscow, on December 1, 1991.

20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union

For one of the last times, the Soviet flag flies over the Kremlin at Red Square in Moscow, on Saturday night, December 21, 1991. The flag was replaced by the Russian flag on New Year’s.

via theatlantic.com

48 thoughts on “20 Years Since The Fall Of The Soviet Union”

  1. If not for that damn coup, the new Union treaty could have been signed, Yeltsin would never have come to power, and the subsequent economic crisis (which formed the basis of all of modern Russia’s problems) could have been avoided. At least for Russia, that it is.

  2. AND AFTER THAT ALL WEMEN BECOME PROSTITUTES, PEOPLE STARVING TO DETH, RUSSIA THIRD WORLD COUNTRY AND RUSSIANS DREAMING TO LIVE THE AMERICAN DREAM…………………….WHAT PATHETIC PEOPLE.

    • Compared to before 1991, No. Life isn’t BETTER.

      Compared to 1991 onwards, yes. Life is A LOT BETTER.

      But then again, that’s just my opinion. (Although, I’m pretty sure most people would agree with me)

    • Well, I do not live in Russia and have never, but if I waited for my opinion to be asked, my keyboard would die beneath cobwebs! LOL.

      In my situation, life hasn’t been great these last few years. Employment, etc. In SU, everyone had a job and a place to live, but you had little choice in this. I don’t know what I would do if my government said, “OK, you will work as a math teacher. Or factory person.” I want — I NEED, that freedom to choose my life for me. You couldn’t see the world, either, you couldn’t travel to London or San Francisco.

      Yes, of course there were some good things in Soviet Union, and corruption and bad things in modern Russia. I just truly believe it is better to have freedom to choose your life. There should be safety nets, but it should be a net, not a cage.

    • Yes and no. Some things that are possible now could not happen in USSR. Internet, technologies, freely communicating with people overseas. You can move to another country (if you have enough energy to get papers/money) There are more possibilities, and country might turn into a quite good place … in 80 years.

      On other hands, some other things become harder – bills(apartment/electricity/water) and food cost much more (compared to your wage/income) than they did in USSR, quality of education seem to deteriorate, and factories/technologies that are developed in russia lag behind the rest of the world.

      Still it would be insane to wish for USSR to return at this point, and I definitely would not want that – I wouldn’t be able to adapt. All benefits of USSR are not worth possibilities I have now. At least now I can move elsewhere if I want to and try hard enough.

  3. IF PROSTITUTION, MAFIA GANGS, POVERTY, PURE EDUCATION AND LIVING IN A THIRD WORLD COUNTRY IS A LOT BETTER THEN IS WHAT YOU DESERVE.

  4. I was in Russia a few months ago. Even in relatively rich places such as St Petersburg people are so uncertain about their future. So many children cannot continue their education for the lack of money. The health system in disrepair. So you have so many things to celebrate for the fall of the CCCP heh ? Now you have freedom in Russia…Freedom of what ?? Freedom to shop !! I you have the money, that is… Putin is good in the sense at least he gave a lesson to a few oligachs such as Berezovsky and Khodorkhovsky… Still, you destroyed a system that tried (at least tried) to give everybody free healthcare and education. Now you look at Russia you see what ? Instead of people playing chess in the backyards you see vandalist teenagers getting drunk on bad beer. Very well !! Well done !!!

    • Would you like to get Cold War back instead? I think that freedom and tough times (Russia) are better than living on the verge of thermonuclear war in a country where people are afraid to speak anything about their government because they might be sent to jail for life (USSR). There are two sides of coin for everything. If you see only good about USSR and only bad about Russia, you’re pretty much blind.

      There are still people playing chess in the parks, by the way.

  5. Soviet Union must come back and destroy evil America. Actually USA was afraid and scared of CCCP which was number 1 superpower of that time…Brezhnev rule was good

  6. it is good the evil Soviet kingdom collapsed.Soviet union will never be back.Thanks a lot to brave russians.Communism will never be dominant ideology once it was because of mass killing,repression practiced by communists under stalin and others.
    Russians deserve the govt they got.At heart russians are really corrupt and tribal.There was never a nation called russia…it is an artificial construct.
    Russians deserve what they got.Live with your new czars putin and medevdev

  7. They thought that the country will instantly what kind of America. It will be possible, as in the Soviet Union to do nothing, but everything will be like in Europe.

  8. As an outsider looking in, It looks to me as though things are improving slowly. It is going to take time and will continue to be a painful transition. It appears that stores have a greater variety of goods available, and in quantity. People are using the internet freely, and have access to news from around the world and can communicate with people from other nations through venues like ER. Sure there is going to be nostalgia for the good things of the Soviet years, but I think as a whole, life is getting better for you. Russia is and has been through out history a great Nation and has contributed greatly to world civilization through culture, science,art, literature,learning. The list could go on and on, you should be proud of that and endeavor to move forward in the path you are on now.

    • Many people love to talk the economic growth and freedom of modern Russia. Almost no one seems to care about Russias social problems.

      In the tightly controlled society of Soviet Russia, things like prostitution, pornography and homosexuality were not allowed to come out of the closet. (they existed but had little to no influence on society as whole).

      But then came Yeltsins Russia. Sex, porn and homosexuality became widespread. Rather than being exceptions (usually), they became the norm. We all know of the Russian economic crisis of the 90’s. Now the economy is strong and growing, but current Russia’s social diseases, which it inherited from the 1990’s Russia, still have no effective cure.

    • Probably lost interest in ER now that he doesn’t have abysmally low comment ratings to look forward to, and then blame Russian national pride for that.

  9. Fall of USSR is a greatest historic blunder.
    Todays Russia is infected by vices of unemployment,
    racism, poverty, corruption, mafia. How does the russians forget their glorious past ? No system is perfect. Look what is happening in USA—– Wall Street Movement against which is against the capitalisti system. Does it mean that USA should dissolve ?

  10. The USSR, for all it’s blemishes (and there were many) was an attempt to build a society, something you do not see in Russia today. It is tragic it fell the way it did as those positive things could have been maintained, but that is all over now and it will be up to the people of Russia to build their society as, in reality, it always is.

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