Oil is a nurse, pride, cause of wars and intrigues and the main guide of Kazakhstan. This year Kazakhstan has a lot of reasons to celebrate: the 100th anniversary of the oilfield Dossor, the 50th anniversary of the Mangyshlak petroleum and the 25th anniversary of the oilfield Kumkol. The following photos are taken from rich archives of materials involved in a new book ” The Kazakhstan Oil. Its History in Pictures”.
In November 1899, in Karashungul the first oil fountain began the history of Kazakhstan petroleum. In April 1911, in Dossor new oil fields of very high quality were discovered and it caused a worldwide craze. Two years later, in the Guriev region the field Makat was opened. By 1914, Makat and Dossor produced over 200 thousand tons of oil.
The life near first oil fields of Kazakhstan, 1910.
A pack caravan of an exploratory group in steppes of Western Kazakhstan. In 1917 in Russia after the October Revolution the process of nationalization of all industries started.
In the 30s Guriev region began to grow rapidly. Labs were created, petroleum colleges were opened, the office “Embanefteproekt” was formed.
A general view of the oil field Dossor.
In 1935 the Stakhanov’s movement developed among Kazakhstan oil worker. Adbrahman Karimov (in the picture) is a Stakhanovite of the oil field Dossor.
During the war times the biggest task was to force oil production in Kazakhstan in order to compensate a temporary suspension of the oil regions activity in Maikop and Grozny. Oil industry workers of the Urals region worked 12-13 hours a day, seven days a week, producing thousands of tons of oil fuel and supplying with it the Soviet army. That oil was the contribution to the victory over fascism, which is still impossible to estimate.
Hardships of the war and an increasing need for the high quality fuel gave a powerful impetus to the development of oil producing and processing industry. Kazakhstan oil workers has mastered the secondary oil production method for the first time in the USSR.
An operator of the oil field Shubarkuduk, 1943.
World War II not only took millions of lives, but also left after itself a completely ruined economy. The 50s are known by active geological exploration, which resulted in opening of new oil fields.
A fuel tanker at an oil storehouse supplied tractors with fuel during field works, 1955.
Workers of boreholes repairs at the oil field Kulsary, 1955.
An oil field operator, 1955.
Electric welders of a refinery.
An oil field operator, 1958.
A communications engineer, 1958.
A senior drilling foreman gives first samples of extracted oil to his colleagues, Guriev region, 1959.
The next decade becomes a new step in the development history of Kazakhstan oil.
Oil exports to world markets were actively increasing.
The meeting devoted to the discovery of the Uzen oil field.
The beginning of town New Uzen, 1962.
The best carpenter of the Urals-Volga exploratory expedition.
In 1965 the oil production in Kazakhstan reached 2 million tons per year.
By 1969 it became more than 10 million tons per year.
A three thousand train with Mangyshlak oil, 1969.
The tanker “Sabunchi” in the Caspian Sea.
The 70s of last century can be considered as a period of major oil discoveries.
Laboratory technicians of the Guriev refinery, 1972.
Testings of a borehole after the capital repair on the section Zhanatalap, Guriev region, 1975.
Lowering of a technical column.
The oil exploration rig Karazhanbas, Mangyshlak region, 1976.
The honour mark of quality with the inscription USSR, 1977.
Installation of fixtures in a future building of a cox workshop in the Guriev refinery.
The central compressor station of the Pavlodar refinery.
The oil field “Uzenneft”, 1982.
Oil refueling of tankers in the port of Shevchenko town.
he railway transshipment and distribution oil base in Kokchetav, 1983.
A huge fire of the borehole № 37 at the Tengiz oil field lasted 368 days : from June 23, 1985 to July 27, 1986.
Unfortunately, there were human sacrifices.
In the 90s independent Kazakhstan began to attract foreign investors and actively develop the oil industry.
The Atyrau refinery plant.
The company “KazTransGas” was created in the 2000s.
On the Caspian shelf the giant Kashagan oil field was opened.
Kazakhstan, Russia and Azerbaijan signed a trilateral agreement on the delimitation point of neighbouring sections in the Caspian Sea.