Atomic energy as well as atomic power plants themselves are undoubtedly hot issues today. This post is going to be about the Kola APS, its structure and operating priciple.
A model of the Kola APS.
The basic operating principle of an atomic power station is very simple: a power station has two contours both filled with water. The first contour is radioactive. It consists of VVER-440 reactor, a volume compensator, a main circulating pump and 6 circulating loops. In the second contour there is a steam generator, turbines, an electro generator, a condenser and condensing pumps. This contour is not radioactive.
The reactor of the Kola atomic power station is water-moderated. It works on thermal neutrons. Desalinated water serves as a heat-carrier – it takes heat away from the active zone of the reactor. Thermal capacity of one reactor is 1375 MW which makes up 440 MW of electricity.
And this is a mockup of a fuel element.
These fuel elements made of zirconium contain uranium-235 in tabloid form. Tubes are collected in fuel assemblages of decagonal form. Assemblages with nuclear fuel are located in the active zone. There goes an operated chain reaction which heats the distilled water of the first contour to 572 F. To avoid boiling in a contour high pressure is retained. With the help of circulating pumps water goes to the steam generator.
The steam generator is a place where heat exchange between water of the first and second contours proceeds. Water of the second contour passes from one modular condition to another – steam, and water of the first contour goes back to the reactor.
Steam formed in the second contour rotates the turbine connected with the electro generator with high speed. The electric power goes to the transformer and then, via transmission line to consumers while the steam of the second contour turns to water again and goes back to the steam generator.
The launch of the 1st power unit. The 25-th of Juny, 1973.
A press conference.
The generator hall. Here are turbines and generators.
Everything that is painted green concerns steam generation and steam lines.
Blue – electric systems.
And red – fire-prevention systems
The reactor room itself.
An amusing thing – there is life buoy fixed on the car which pulls out cores from the reactor.
To leave the reactor room you have to pass a radiation check.
Ion-exchange resings. Reserve
Nuclear waste disposal centre.
The access is forbidden
Location:Polyarnie Zori, the Murmansk region