Homeless (street) children - a social phenomenon in which there is separation of children from families with the loss of permanent home. Hallmarks of homelessness are: complete cessation of contact with family and parents; living in places that not intended for human habitation; providing for a life in ways which are not recognized in society (begging,
stealing); submission informal laws. The number of homeless children increased after the World War I and the Civil War in the USSR which was after the Great October Socialist Revolution. According to one source there were 4.5 million homeless children in 1921 in Russia, according to the others - in 1922 there were 7 million.
Novgorod is one of the oldest known Russian cities, officially its foundation date is 859 AD, however people lived there even before that. From 1136 to 1478 it is said to be the capital of Novgorod Republic - a state that stretched a few thousand kilometers across North European Russia, from the Baltic Sea on the West to Ural mountains on the East. It became fully independent from Ancient Russian State at that time. The leaders of republic were "Knjazs" or dukes that were often appointed by the democratic procedure of voting by the "Veche" which was a
gathering of the part of the men population of the Novgorod. They could elect or call brave men of their liking to become their king for time being, and sometimes it were not kings of Russian origin but of foreign too, just like larger corporations can hire their CEOs now from the wide range of international professionals. However later the Moscow Tsars have conquered the republic and it became a part of Russia again. Since 1999 the legal name of the city is Great Novgorod. Here we have a set of photos from Novgorod.