Diamonds were formed more than 300 million years ago. Kimberlite magma formed at a depth of 20 or 25 km. Magma gradually rises along faults in the crust and when the upper layer can no longer hold back the pressure of the magma, an eruption occurs. The first such "pipes" were found in Kimberley inSouth Africa and from there came the name. In the mid 50s rich primary diamond deposits were discovered in Yakutia. Here the diamonds were found in about 1500 kimberlite pipes.
The Russian company "ALROSA" produces 99% of diamonds in Russia and more than 25% of the diamonds in the world .
The kimberlite pipe "Mir" (Peace) is an indigenous diamond mine that had been opened in 1955. The field was developed initially at Mirny where an open pit mine and processing plant were created. The quarry has a depth of 525 m and a diameter of 1.2 km, so it is one of the largest in the world. Diamondiferous kimberlite ore open pit mining ceased in June 2001. Since 2009, mining diamond ore is done in the "Mir" underground mine.