These are the photos from a big photo collection of Albert Kahn devoted to Mongolia visited by a photographer Stefan Passe in 1913. Mongolia declared independence from China in 1911. It was under protectorate of the Russian Empire at the time of Passe’s journey,
with full autonomy and own theocratic leaders. But, after only 1 year of protectorate, Russian Empire recognized suzerainty of China over Mongolia. The country from the point of view of a civilized European was a shocking feodalic reservation.