V. I. Lenin’s Mausoleum (1953-61 the Mausoleum of V. I. Lenin and I. V. Stalin) – monument – burial vault on Red Square of Moscow at the Kremlin wall. Let’s trace the history of this unique object.
The first wooden Mausoleum (project of A. V. Schusev) was erected by the Vladimir Lenin’s funeral day (27 January, 1924), it had a cubic form and was topped with a three-stage pyramid. It had stood only to spring 1924.
To the second wooden Mausoleum erected in 1924 they attached tribunes from both sides. The initial project of the sarcophagus was announced too complicated and an architect K. S. Melnikov offered 8 new variants of the project. One of them was confirmed and soon built to stay there till the end of WWII.
Compact shape of the second Mausoleum was used while designing the third, existing today, monument, made of reinforced concrete with brick walls coated with granite, marble, labradorite and porphyry coating. Inside the building has a vestibule and a hall of honor 100 m2 big. In 1930 new tribunes appeared aside the Mausoleum and trimmed graves at the Kremlin wall.
During WWII, in July, 1941, the body of Lenin was evacuated to Tyumen. It was kept in the building where Tyumen state agricultural academy is located today. In April 1945 the leader’s body came back to Moscow.
In 1945 a central tribune of the Mausoleum was built. The old sarcophagus of Melnikov was replaced by a new one made under the project of A. V. Schusev and a sculptor B. I. Yakovlev. In the period 1953—1961 the body of Stalin was also kept in the Mausoleum.