Kharkiv's Institute of Ionosphere is one of the world's leading research centers that studies near-Earth space physics and solar-terrestrial couplings with an up-to-date, most accurate and informative method of incoherent scatter (IS) of radio waves. In 2001, the scientific center named
as "Ionospheric sonde" was registered as the National Property of Ukraine. There are 11 IS radar systems in the world, 5 radars belonging to the United States. They began constructing Kharkov's IS radars in 1966. First experimental results were obtained in 1972.