According to Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency V. Popovkin, it is likely that Russian cosmonauts will land on the Moon by 2020. Citizens of the Russian Federation, engineers or doctors by education, may apply for the program to be selected for the expedition. The Russian Federal Space Agency also announced its plans to build research stations on Mars. All that is yet to happen in future so why not look back into the past to see what space programs the Soviet Union and Russia had.
On October 4th, 1957 Soviet Sputnik-1 was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, to become the first artificial satellite to be put into Earth orbit and trigger a space race between the USSR and the USA.
On November 3rd, 1957 Sputnik-2 became the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. Laika died a few hours later from overheating and stress (in 1957 it was announced the dog died 6 days after the launch).
On August 19th, 1960 the dogs named Belka and Strelka spent one day in space and safely returned to Earth.