After the disintegration of the USSR, independent Kazakhstan faced a lot of challenges it had to get over. We have already told you about events which happened in 1991 and 1992, and now it’s time for 1993 and 1994.
So, in 1993, they began introducing economic reforms into the country, such as turning citizens of Kazakhstan into potential shareholders and creating its own currency – the tenge.
On January 28th, they established the Constitution of Kazakhstan which later turned out to be the most democratic one. The country became a parlamentary republic and the Kazakh language became the state language.
People could see the Head of the Supreme Soviet of Kazakhstan triumphing over it.
However, his triumph lasted not for long. The same year, the Supreme Soviet declared its voluntary dissolution because since it had too many powers, the principle of separation of powers was hard to comply with under the given Constitution.
Alma Ata was renamed into Almaty.
People faced lack of public transport, fuel and manpower and had to wait at bus stations for hours.
They let a contract, which was named ‘Conract of the Century’ with an American company Chevron.
That year, Kazakh Soviet communist politician Dinmukhamed Konayev died on August, 22nd. He had been the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Kazakhstan up to 1986. He preferred going to work on foot to company’s cars and only after his death, they found out that he had neither a car, nor home of his own, but donated most of his money to Alma Ata Children’s Home #1. Thousands of people came to say their last good-bye to ‘the Great Man’.
In 1992, thousands of Kazakh families from neighbouring countries began coming back to their neck of the woods after the official invitation made by the President. However, in 1993, government established an immigration quota, and by 2000, very few people expressed their willingness to come back to Kazakhstan.
In 1993, they launched a program of mass privatisation. According to the program, they distributed coupons among all the people of the country which they had to give in at privatisation investment funds, which, in their turn, had to privatize state enterprises and pay dividends to the people. As a result, enterprises passed into the hands of a small group of people who never paid a dollar to their shareholders.
People learnt what the term ‘ghost city’ meant. These were usually cities which economy was based on just one industry. Stoppages and interruptions in heating, power and water supply were turning to be a norm.
People had to leave their homes. Some of them moved to other cities, others immigrated to other countries. Those who remained, made their living by disassembling abandoned homes and selling everything that could be sold.
People began purchasing used cars abroad (which were more reliable than domestic new ones) to deliver them to Kazakhstan.