Oil is a nurse, pride, cause of wars and intrigues and the main guide of Kazakhstan. This year Kazakhstan has a lot of reasons to celebrate: the 100th anniversary of the oilfield Dossor, the 50th anniversary of the Mangyshlak petroleum and the 25th anniversary of the oilfield Kumkol. The following photos are taken from rich archives of materials involved in a new book " The Kazakhstan Oil. Its History in Pictures".
In November 1899, in Karashungul the first oil fountain began the history of Kazakhstan petroleum. In April 1911, in Dossor new oil fields of very high quality were discovered and it caused a worldwide craze. Two years later, in the Guriev region the field Makat was opened. By 1914, Makat and Dossor produced over 200 thousand tons of oil.
The life near first oil fields of Kazakhstan, 1910.
A pack caravan of an exploratory group in steppes of Western Kazakhstan. In 1917 in Russia after the October Revolution the process of nationalization of all industries started.
In the 30s Guriev region began to grow rapidly. Labs were created, petroleum colleges were opened, the office "Embanefteproekt" was formed.
A general view of the oil field Dossor.
In 1935 the Stakhanov's movement developed among Kazakhstan oil worker. Adbrahman Karimov (in the picture) is a Stakhanovite of the oil field Dossor.
During the war times the biggest task was to force oil production in Kazakhstan in order to compensate a temporary suspension of the oil regions activity in Maikop and Grozny. Oil industry workers of the Urals region worked 12-13 hours a day, seven days a week, producing thousands of tons of oil fuel and supplying with it the Soviet army. That oil was the contribution to the victory over fascism, which is still impossible to estimate.
Hardships of the war and an increasing need for the high quality fuel gave a powerful impetus to the development of oil producing and processing industry. Kazakhstan oil workers has mastered the secondary oil production method for the first time in the USSR.