The Southwestern Railway is one of the major thoroughfares of Ukraine and it has the second highest volume of traffic among other railways. The road mainly serves northern and northwestern regions of the country, stretching through them for 4,500 km. The name "Southwestern" remained from pre-revolutionary times. The road construction was begun in
the 60s of the XIX century, when it became necessary to connect the port of Odessa and the Russian southwestern borders with central regions. 1870 is considered to be the date of birth of the Southwestern Railway. Now there are 315 railway stations, more than 90% of the traffic are made by use of the electric traction.
Çufut Qale is an ancient cave city located in the Crimea, not far away from Bakhchisaray. People call it in many different ways - "Air City", "Forty Fortifications", "Jewish Fortress" and "Fortress of Valuables". Çufut Qale seems to be the only well-preserved example of
the medieval architecture of the Crimea. The fortress was built in the 14th century and over a long period of time a lot of different peoples lived there. Still, the city is mainly known as "Jewish" because of the Karaites, the followers of Judaism.