Decision on construction of hydroelectric complexes in upper stream of the Volga River was taken in 1935. A special construction and mounting board was created for implementation of this decision and control over it. Construction works at the Uglich Hydropower plant were carried out under the supervision of the Commissariat for Internal Affairs (the forerunner of the famous KGB) with intensive use of the prisoners' labor.
Design of this particular hydropower plant reflected trends of that times in construction of hydromachines - enlargement of generators and respectively decrease of their general quantity. This forced the Soviet engineering factories to design and introduce new technologies allowing to produce incredibly huge adjustable-blade turbines and powerful generators. Afterwards these technologies were successfully used in constructing the other powerful Soviet hydropower plants.